European companies beat US to Iran business after nuclear deal reached


US firms await outcome of Congress deliberations over Iran agreement, leaving them at the back of the queue for a market due to reopen after years of sanctions.

The ink was barely dry on the agreement with Iran to limit its nuclear programme before a German government plane packed with the nation’s economic elite touched down in Tehran.

The trip was the first in a rush of European ministers and business people flocking to a market poised to reopen after years of grinding sanctions. Upscale Tehran hotels are packed and tables at trendy restaurants are scarce as foreigners jostle for bargains, even amid uncertainty over whether President Obama can overcome US congressional opposition to the deal.

The stream of visitors to Tehran is the latest sign of the Atlantic-wide divide between the US and Europe, where there is scant opposition to the pact that aims to crimp Iran’s nuclear ambitions. Barack Obama and secretary of state John Kerry have warned detractors that they would be unable to reimpose a multinational trade embargo if congress rejects the plans. The other five countries that helped broker the deal have also told congress they will not return to the negotiating table. The trips show that US leaders can’t keep Europeans from flying to Tehran ahead of the congressional vote, which must take place by 17 September.

Reference: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/aug/25/europe-us-iran-business-nuclear-deal-sanctions


Glossary

beat   /bēt/     V

defeat (someone) in a game, competition, election, or commercial venture.

“she beat him easily at chess”

synonyms:   defeat, conquer, win against, get the better of, vanquish, trounce, rout, overpower, overcome, subdue;


await   /əˈwāt/   V

(of a person) wait for (an event).

“we await the proposals with impatience”

synonyms:   wait for, expect, anticipate

“Peter was awaiting news”


outcome   /ˈoutˌkəm/   N

the way a thing turns out; a consequence.

“it is the outcome of the vote that counts”

synonyms:   result, end result, consequence, net result, upshot, aftereffect, aftermath, conclusion, issue, end, end product

“the future of the industry could hinge on the outcome of next month’s election”


deliberation   /dəˌlibəˈrāSH(ə)n/   V

۱-careful consideration before decision.

۲-formal consultation or discussion.


the ink is not dry/still wet

 You say that the ink is not ​dry/still ​wet on a ​document if it has just been written or ​produced:

“The ink was ​barelydry on the ​peaceagreement when ​fightingbroke out again.”


elite    [ih-leet, ey-leet]   N

(used with a plural verb) persons of the highest class:

“Only the elite were there.”


touch down                 PV

(of an aircraft or spacecraft) make contact with the ground in landing.

synonyms:   land, alight, come down, put down, arrive

“the plane is expected to touch down in San Juan”


in a rush                                      [singular/uncountable]

a situation in which you hurry to do something, especially because you do not have much time

Sorry about the rush, but we need the figures tomorrow.”

be in a rush:

Sorry, I can’t stop. I’m in a rush.”


flock   /fläk /   V

to gather or go in a flock  or crowd:

“They flocked around the football hero.”

آنها اطراف قهرمان فوتبال جمع شدند


poised   /poizd/    Adj

(of a person or organization) be ready to do something.

“teachers are poised to resume their attack on government school tests”

synonyms:   prepare oneself, ready oneself, brace oneself, gear oneself up, stand by

“he was poised for action”


grinding   /ˈɡrīndiNG/   Adj

(of a state) oppressive, tedious, and seemingly without end.

“grinding poverty”


upscale   /ˌəpˈskāl/   Adj

toward or relating to the more expensive or affluent sector of the market.

“Hawaii’s upscale boutique hotels”

synonyms:   deluxe, posh, ritzy, upper-class, classy, chi-chi;


pack                           V

(of a large number of people) crowd into and fill (a room, building, or place).

“the waiting room was packed”

synonyms:   crowded, full, filled (to capacity), well attended, crammed, jammed, solid, overcrowded, overfull, teeming, seething, swarming;


trendy   /ˈtrendē/   Adj

 very fashionable or up to date in style or influence.

“I enjoyed being able to go out and buy trendy clothes”

synonyms:   fashionable, in fashion, fashion-forward, in vogue, popular, up-to-date, au courant, modern, all the rage, du jour, modish, à la mode, trendsetting;


scarce   /skers/   Adj

(especially of food, money, or some other resource) insufficient for the demand.

“as raw materials became scarce, synthetics were developed”

synonyms:   in short supply, scant, scanty, meager, sparse, short, hard to find, hard to come by, too little, insufficient, deficient, inadequate, lacking, wanting;


jostle   /ˈjäsəl/   V

to compete for something

two candidates jostling for votes


bargain   /ˈbärɡən/   N

an agreement between two or more parties as to what each party will do for the other.

“the extraconstitutional bargain between the northern elite and the southern planters”

synonyms:   agreement, arrangement, understanding, deal


amid   /əˈmid/   preposition

surrounded by; in the middle of.

“our dream home, set amid magnificent rolling countryside”

synonyms:   in the middle of, surrounded by, among, amongst;


overcome   /ˌōvərˈkəm/   V

succeed in dealing with (a problem or difficulty).

“she worked hard to overcome her paralyzing shyness”

synonyms:   get the better of, prevail over, control, get/bring under control, master, conquer, defeat, beat;


opposition   /ˌäpəˈziSH(ə)n/

strong disagreement with a plan or policy, especially when this is shown in active attempts to prevent something

opposition to:

Public opposition to the military government is growing.”

in opposition to something:

Local residents have come out in opposition to the planned closure.”

strong/considerable/fierce etc. opposition:

“The bill faces strong opposition from the gun lobby.”


scant   /skant/   Adj

barely sufficient or adequate.

“companies with scant regard for the safety of future generations”

synonyms:   little, little or no, minimal, hardly (any), limited, negligible, barely sufficient, meager;


pact   /pakt/   N

a formal agreement between individuals or parties.

synonyms:   agreement, treaty, entente, protocol, deal, settlement, concordat, accord;


crimp   /krimp/   V         informal

have a limiting or adverse effect on (something).

“farmers complain that the drought could crimp their income potential”


ambition   /amˈbiSH(ə)n/   N

a strong desire to do or to achieve something, typically requiring determination and hard work.

“her ambition was to become a model”

synonyms:   aspiration, intention, goal, aim, objective, object, purpose, intent, plan, desire, wish, design, target, dream

“her ambition was to become a diplomat”


secretary of state   N   n. pl. secretaries of state

The president’s chief advisor for foreign policy, head of the US State Department, and senior Cabinet official.


detractor   /dɪˈtræk·tər/

a ​person who ​criticizes something or someone, often ​unfairly:

“He is much more ​popular with his ​teammates than his detractors would have you ​believe.”


reimpose                V

impose (something, especially a law or regulation) again after a lapse.

impose   /imˈpōz/   V

force (something unwelcome or unfamiliar) to be accepted or put in place.

“the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others”

synonyms:   foist, force, inflict, press, urge;


embargo   /əmˈbärɡō/   N

an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.

“an embargo on grain sales”

تحریم


broker   /ˈbrōkər/   V

arrange or negotiate (a settlement, deal, or plan).

“fighting continued despite attempts to broker a ceasefire”

synonyms:   arrange, organize, orchestrate, work out, settle, clinch, bring about;


keep from

keep someone from    

avoid (or cause someone to avoid) doing something.

“Dinah bit her lips to keep from screaming”

synonyms:   prevent, stop, restrain, hold back


ahead of        

in front of or before.

“she walked ahead of him along the corridor”

synonyms:   in front of, before

“Blanche went ahead of the others”


take place               PhV

occur.

synonyms:   happen, occur, come about, transpire, crop up, materialize, arise, go down;


by       

indicating a deadline or the end of a particular time period.

“I’ve got to do this report by Monday”

synonyms:   no later than, in good time for, at, before

“be there by midday”


We are going to learn English through comprehensible inputs meaning anything familiar to us such as reading of Iran news every day, so this is a place where we would like to share our assignments. We would be grateful if you could give us your comments and feedback. Please leave your questions regarding the text in comments below as well.