Internal Procter & Gamble International Operations documents reviewed by The Wall Street Journal provide a rare glimpse into the careful, behind-the-scenes efforts undertaken on behalf of U.S. companies to do business legally in Iran several years ago, amid the sanctions—which have barred trade, with limited exceptions. While sanctions remain in place, the exceptions have expanded, following Iran’s nuclear accord with the U.S. and other countries implemented in January.

P&G’s back story in the country of roughly 80 million people underlines why it, and other U.S. firms, are eager to re-engage. Future prospects also help: BMI Research estimates the Iranian consumer-goods market will expand by aboutanother $100 billion by 2020.

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Glimpse: noun [ C ] uk ​ /ɡlɪmps/ us ​ /ɡlɪmps/

a quick idea or understanding of what something is like:

‘’This biography offers a few glimpses of his life before he became famous.’’


behind-the-scenes   collocation

unknown to the public:

‘’behind-the-scenes negotiations’’


Undertake:  verb [ T ]  uk /ˌʌn.dəˈteɪk/ us /ˌʌn.dɚˈteɪk/ undertook, undertaken formal

to do or begin to do something, especially something that will take a long time or be difficult:

‘’Students are required to undertake simple experiments.’’


on behalf of someone also on someone’s behalf

​done for another person’s benefit or support, or because you are representing the interests of that person:

‘’I’d like to say on behalf of the whole group that we wish you well in your new job.’’


Amid:  preposition uk ​ /əˈmɪd/ us ​ /əˈmɪd/ also amidst, uk ​ /əˈmɪdst/ us ​ formal

in the middle of or surrounded by:

”On the floor, amid mounds of books, were two small envelopes.”

”The new perfume was launched amidst a fanfare of publicity.”


Bar: verb [ T ] uk ​ /bɑːr/ us ​ /bɑːr/ -rr-

to prevent something or someone from doing something or going somewhere, or to not allow something:

‘’The centre of the town was barred to football supporters.’’

‘’I tried to push past her but she barred my way/path (= stood in front of me and prevented me from getting past).’’


Exception: noun [ C ] /ɪkˈsepʃən/

someone or something that is not included in a rule, group, or list, or that does not behave in the expected way:

’Most of these states have moderate property taxes; Arizona’s very high business property taxes are an exception.’’

‘’The condition covering cotton textiles was agreed as an exception to the general trade rules.’’


Implement: verb [ T ] uk ​ /ˈɪm.plɪ.ment/ us ​ /ˈɪm.plə.ment/

to start using a plan or system:

‘’The changes to the national health system will be implemented next year.’’


Roughly: adverb uk ​ /ˈrʌ us ​ /ˈrʌ


‘’There has been an increase of roughly 2.25 million.’’

‘’Roughly speaking, it’s 2.25 million.’’

‘’We have roughly similar tastes/roughly the same tastes.’’


Underline:   verb /ˌʌndə(r)ˈlaɪn/

to show clearly that something is important or true

‘’The upsurge in violence merely underlines the need for continuing peace talks.’’

‘’Recent job losses underline the continued weakness of the economy.’’


Re-engage:  verb

Re-establish a meaningful contact or connection with:

‘’advisers will help a person to re-engage with the labour market’’


Prospects: noun  [ plural ] uk ​ /ˈprɒs.pekt/ us ​ /ˈprɑː.spekt/

the possibility of being successful, especially at work:

‘’She’s hoping the course will improve her career prospects.’’

Prospects of/for (= opportunities for)

‘’The prospects for employment in the technology sector are especially good right now.’’



کالاهای مصرفی


Another:   uk /əˈnʌð.ər/ us /əˈnʌð.ɚ/

one more person or thing or an extra amount:

‘’For another £30 (= for £30 more) you can buy the model with a touchscreen.’’

‘’Just think, in another three months (= three months from now) it’ll be summer again.’’

‘’I’m going to have another piece of cake.’’