But many German business and government leaders had predicted the lifting of sanctions on Iran would trigger a bonanza for their industrial firms, which want to sell Iran equipment to help rebuild its aging infrastructure.

Disappointed Germans are now blaming the shortfall primarily on remaining U.S. prohibitions on some transactions with Iran.

“The development lags behind our expectations by far, because of the [U.S.] sanctions still in place,” said Gregor Wolf, director of European and international affairs at the Federation of German Wholesale Foreign Trade and Services. “Companies are afraid of U.S. retaliation,” he added.

Many Western financial institutions are hesitant about engaging with the Iranian market for fear of facing U.S. fines, Mr. Wolf said. That reticence complicates payments.

Read More: http://www.wsj.com/articles/german-business-blames-u-s-for-iran-trade-disappointment-1472646058

Bonanza:  noun [ C ] uk ​ /bəˈnæn.zə/ us ​ /bəˈnæn.zə/

a situation from which large profits are made:

‘’The rise in house prices meant that those who were selling enjoyed a bonanza.’’

‘’April was a bonanza month for car sales.’’


Aging:   US spelling of ageing     djective, /ˈeɪ.dʒɪŋ/

used to describe a person or thing that is getting old:

“an ageing Hollywood actor”

“ageing computers/machinery”


Disappointed: adjective uk ​ /ˌdɪs.əˈpɔɪn.tɪd/ us ​ /ˌdɪs.əˈpɔɪn.t̬ɪd/

unhappy because someone or something was not as good as you hoped or expected, or because something did not happen:

“We were deeply disappointed at/about the result.”

“His parents were bitterly disappointed in/with him.”

“[ + (that) ] She was disappointed (that) they hadn’t phoned.”

“If you’re expecting Dad to let you borrow his car, you’re going to be sorely disappointed.”


Shortfall:  noun [ C ] uk ​ /ˈʃɔːt.fɔːl/ us ​ /ˈʃɔːrt.fɑːl/

an amount that is less than the level that was expected or needed:

“The drought caused serious shortfalls in the food supply.”


Primarily:  adverb uk ​ /praɪˈmer.əl.i/ us ​ /praɪˈmer.əl.i/


“We’re primarily concerned with keeping expenditure down.”

“Baseball is primarily a summer game.”


Prohibition:  /ˌproʊ.ɪˈbɪʃ.ən/ /ˌproʊ.hɪˈbɪʃ.ən/

the act of officially not allowing something, or an order that does this:

“New York City has announced a prohibition on smoking on buses.”

“The environmental group is demanding a complete prohibition against the hunting of whales.”


Transaction:  oun [ C or U ] uk ​ /trænˈzæk.ʃən/ us ​ /trænˈzæk.ʃən/

an instance of buying or selling something.

“in an ordinary commercial transaction a delivery date is essential”

“We need to monitor the transaction of smaller deals.”


Lag:  verb uk ​ /læɡ/ us ​ /læɡ/

fail to keep up with another or others in movement or development.

“they waited for Tim who was lagging behind”


By far:

by a great amount:

“They are by far the best students in the class.”


In place:

If something is in place, it is in its usual or correct position:

“The chairs are all in place.”

“He screwed the shelf in place.”


Afraid: adjective uk ​ /əˈfreɪd/ us ​ /əˈfreɪd/

[ after verb ] feeling fear, or feeling worry about the possible results of a particular situation:

“I’ve always been afraid of flying/heights/spiders.”

“ [ + to infinitive ] Don’t be afraid to say what you think.”


Retaliation:  noun [ U ] uk ​ /rɪˌtæl.iˈeɪ.ʃən/ us ​ /rɪˌtæl.iˈeɪ.ʃən/

“The bomb attack was in retaliation for the recent arrest of two well-known terrorists.”


retaliate verb [ I ] uk ​ /rɪˈtæl.i.eɪt/ us ​ /rɪˈtæl.i.eɪt/

​to hurt someone or do something harmful to someone because they have done or said something harmful to you:

“If someone insults you, don’t retaliate as it only makes the situation worse.”


Hesitant: adjective uk ​ /ˈhez.ɪ.tənt/ us ​ /ˈhez.ə.tənt/

If you are hesitant, you do not do something immediately or quickly because you are nervous or not certain:

“You seemed a bit hesitant about recommending that restaurant – is something wrong with it?”

“She gave me a hesitant smile.”



Noun [ U ] uk ​ /ˈret.ɪ.səns/ us ​ /ˈret̬.ə.səns/

“His reticence about his past made them very suspicious.”


Reticent  adjective uk ​ /ˈret.ɪ.sənt/ us ​ /ˈret̬.ə.sənt/ formal

unwilling to speak about your thoughts or feelings:

“He is very reticent about his past.”

“Most of the students were reticent about answering questions.”


Complicate: verb [ T ] uk ​ /ˈkɒm.plɪ.keɪt/ us ​ /ˈkɑːm.plə.keɪt/

to make something more difficult to deal with, do, or understand:

“The rescue operation has been complicated by bad weather.”

“These new rules have complicated the tax system even further.”